First head of the Commonwealth Treasury 1901–16, Allen had been an accountant in the Victorian Treasury.
New South Wales political reformer, federationist and educator who founded the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales in 1891 and was active in the National Council of Women and other organisations until her death in 1927.
Balfour, (Lord) Arthur James
Britain's Conservative Prime Minister 1902–05 during the Barton, Deakin, Watson and Reid governments, and Britain's Foreign Secretary 1916–19 during the Hughes government.
Barton, (Sir) Edmund
Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Hunter). Barton was Prime Minister and Minister for External Affairs 1901–03, and a judge of the High Court of Australia 1903–20.
Read more about Edmund Barton.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 710.
Barton, (Lady) Jane
Jane Barton was prime ministerial wife 1901–03. She was afterwards foundation president of the Queens Club in Sydney; and had been a vice-president of the Sydney Women's Federation League in 1899.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 930.
Braddon, (Sir) Edward Nicholas Coventry
Free Trade Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Tasmania) and 1903–04 (Wilmot). Deputy Leader of the Opposition until his death in 1904, Braddon had been premier of Tasmania 1894–99 and a delegate to the 1897–98 Federation convention.
Carruthers, (Sir) Joseph Hector
Premier of New South Wales 1904–07. Before Federation Carruthers had been a member of Reid's Free Trade ministry. He was a strong opponent of federal Protectionist policies and clashed with Deakin on this issue and on the transfer of land for the Federal Capital Territory. Carruthers was also aligned with Reid in introducing Empire Day in 1905.
Chamberlain, (Sir) Joseph Austen
Conservative Member of the House of Commons 1892–1937, Britain's Foreign Secretary 1924–29 and the eldest son of Joseph Chamberlain.
Chapman, (Sir) Austin
Member of the House of Representatives (Eden–Monaro) for the Protectionist Party 1901–10, Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17, and Nationalist Party 1917–26. Minister for Defence in the first Deakin government (24 September 1903 – 27 April 1904), Postmaster-General (5 July 1905 – 30 July 1907) and Minister for Trade and Customs (30 July 1907 – 13 November 1908) in the second Deakin government. In the Bruce–Page government, he was Minister for Trade and Customs and for Health (9 February 1923 – 26 May 1924). Chapman had been a strong federationist as a member of the New South Wales parliament (Braidwood) 1891–1901.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 709.
Melbourne Age newspaper journalist covering the federation campaign 1898–1901, and Federal parliament 1901–10. Cockerill became chief of staff on the Age and chief leader-writer 1914–26, from 1926–28 was editor-in-chief of the Sydney Daily Telegraph newspaper and from 1929–39 leader-writer for the Melbourne Herald newspaper. In 1928–29, Cockerill was employed by the Commonwealth Development and Migration Commission as chief of publicity.
Cook, (Sir) Joseph
Member of the House of Representatives (Parramatta) for the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–10, the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–21. Cook was Prime Minister and Minister for Home Affairs (1913–14), Minister for Defence in the Deakin government (1909–10), Minister for the Navy (1917–20) and Treasurer (1920–21) in the Hughes government, and High Commissioner in London 1921–27.
Read more about Joseph Cook.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 611.
Member of the House of Representatives (Ballarat) for the Protectionist Party 1901–10 and the Liberal Party 1910–13. Deakin was the first Attorney-General, in the Barton government (1901–03), Prime Minister three times (1903–04, 1905–08, 1909–10), and Minister for External Affairs in his own governments in 1903–04 and 1905–08. As a Victorian parliamentarian and leading federationist, Deakin had been a delegate to the 1890 Federation Conference and to both federation Conventions (1891 and 1897–98) and a member of the Constitution Bill deputation in London in 1900.
Read more about Alfred Deakin.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 9.
Dibbs, (Sir) George Richard
New South Wales parliamentarian 1874–1895 and Premier 1885, 1886–87,1889, and 1891–94. Originally a free trader, Dibbs became a protectionist in 1887, and thus a political rival of George Reid. Although he was a delegate to the 1891 Federation Convention, Dibbs was not an enthusiastic supporter of federation, promoting Sydney's right to be the federal capital and arguing for a strong Senate.
Emily Dobson was a founder of the National Council of Women in Tasmania and frequently led the Australian delegations to conferences of the International Council of Women 1899–1920. Her husband Henry Dobson was Tasmanian Premier 1892–94.
Free Trade Senator for Tasmania 1901–10 and had been Premier of Tasmania 1892–94. With Emily Dobson, an active federationist and political reformer.
Drake, James George
Protectionist Senator for Queensland 1901–06 and Postmaster-General 1901–03 then briefly Minister for Defence in the last month of the Barton government. Drake was Attorney-General in the first Deakin government (24 September 1903 – 27 April 1904) and Vice-President of the Executive Council in the Reid government (18 August 1904 – 5 July 1905).
Edward VII, King
Eldest son of Queen Victoria. With Queen Alexandra, British monarch 1901–10 and Australia's head of state during the Barton, Deakin, Watson, Reid and Fisher governments.
Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–15 (Wide Bay), Andrew Fisher was Minister for Trade and Customs in the Watson government in 1904, Prime Minister 3 times (1908–09, 1910–13, 1914–15), and Treasurer in each of his own 3 governments. Fisher was High Commissioner in London 1916–21.
Read more about Andrew Fisher.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 713.
Forrest, (Sir) John
Member of the House of Representatives (Swan) for the Protectionist Party 1901–06, West Australia Party 1906–10, Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17, and the Nationalist Party 1917–18. Postmaster-General (1–10 January 1901) and Minister for Defence (10 January 1901 – 24 September 1903) in the Barton government, Minister for Home Affairs in the Deakin government (24 September 1903 – 27 April 1904), Treasurer (5 July 1905 – 30 July 1907) in the second Deakin government, Treasurer in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), and Treasurer (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914) in the Cook government, Treasurer (17 February 1917–27 March 1918) in the Hughes government. Forrest had been Premier of Western Australia 1890–1901.
Garran, (Sir) Robert Randolph
Appointed first head of the Attorney-General’s department and parliamentary draftsman on 1 January 1901, Garran remained in this post until 5 February 1932. He served the governments of 10 prime ministers: Barton, Deakin, Watson, Reid, Fisher, Cook, Hughes, Bruce, Scullin and Lyons. As a young Sydney federationist in Barton’s circle, Garran had been secretary to the 1897–98 Constitutional drafting committee.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 396.
George V, King
Grandson of Queen Victoria, son of King Edward VII, as Duke of York opened first Commonwealth parliament in 1901, with Queen Mary British monarch 1910–36.
Griffith, (Sir) Samuel Walker
First Chief Justice of the High Court 1903–19, Griffith had attended the 1890 Federation Conference and was a major figure in drafting the original Constitution at the 1891 federation Convention. He was Premier of Queensland 1883–88, and Queensland Chief Justice 1893–1903.
Groom, (Sir) Littleton Ernest
Member of the House of Representatives (Darling Downs) 1901–29 and 1931–36, Groom was Minister for Home Affairs and then Attorney-General (12 October 1906 – 13 November 1908) replacing Isaac Isaacs in the second Deakin government, Minister for External Affairs in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), and Minister for Trade and Customs in the Cook government (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914). In the Hughes government he served as honorary Minister (17 February 1917 – 16 November 1917), Vice-President of the Executive Council (16 November 1917–27 March 1918), Minister for Works and Railways (27 March 1918 – 21 December 1921), and Attorney-General (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). In the Bruce–Page government he was Attorney-General (9 February 1923 – 18 December 1925), Minister for Trade and Customs and Minister for Health (29 May – 13 June 1924). From 1926 to 29, he was Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Holman, William Arthur
United Australia Party member of House of Representatives 1931–34 (Martin). A backbencher in the Lyons government, Holman was a former Premier of New South Wales (1913–20) and state parliamentarian 1898–1917 (Labor) and 1917–1920 (Nationalist). In 1911 Holman had been a powerful opponent of the Fisher government’s referendum seeking greater Commonwealth powers over industry, trade and commerce. With Chris Watson, Joseph Cook and William Hughes, he had been a founding member of the New South Wales Labor Electoral League in 1891.
Hopetoun (Lord), John Adrian Louis Hope
Governor-General of Australia from 1 January 1901, Hopetoun left Australia on 17 July 1902 and was succeeded by the acting Governor-General, Lord Tennyson on 9 January 1903.
Howse, (Sir) Neville Reginald
Nationalist Party member of House of Representatives 1922–29 (Calare), Minister for Defence and Minister for Health (16 January 1925 – 2 April 1927), honorary Minister (2 April 1927 – 24 February 1928), Minister for Home and Territories (24 February – 29 November 1928), and Minister for Health (24 February 1928 – 22 October 1929) in the Bruce–Page government. A surgeon, Howse had been director of medical services for the Australian army in 1915 and had given evidence to the Dardanelles Commission in 1917. He was a member of Australia’s delegation to the League of Nations in 1923 and in 1925 he helped found the Federal Health Council, and in 1928, the College of Surgeons of Australasia.
Hughes, William Morris
Member of the House of Representatives 1901–17 (West Sydney), 1917–22 (Bendigo), 1922–49 (North Sydney) and 1949–52 (Bradfield). Hughes was a member of the Labor Party 1901–17, the Nationalist Party 1917–29, an ‘Independent Nationalist’ 1929–31, United Australia Party 1931–44, Liberal Party 1944–52. Prime Minister (1915–23), Hughes still holds the record as Australia’s longest serving parliamentarian. He was a Minister in the governments of Watson (1904), Fisher (1908–09, 1910–13 and 1914–15), Lyons (1932–39), Page (Attorney-General, Minister for Industry and Minister for External Affairs (7 April 1939 – 26 April 1939), Menzies (Attorney-General 26 April 1939 – 29 August 1941, Minister for Industry 26 April 1939 – 28 October 1940, Minister for the Navy 28 October 1940 – 29 August 1941), and Fadden (continuing as Attorney-General and Minister for the Navy 29 August 1941 – 7 October 1941). During the term of his own government he also served as Attorney-General (27 October 1915 – 21 December 1921), Minister for Trade and Customs (29 September 1916 – 14 November 1916), Minister for External Affairs (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). As a New South Wales parliamentarian 1894–1901 Hughes was a founding member of the Labor Party in New South Wales. He became a founding member of the Nationalist Party in 1917, the United Australia Party in 1931, and the Liberal Party in 1945.
Read more about William Hughes.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 290.
Isaacs, (Sir) Isaac Alfred
The first Australian-born Governor-General, serving from 22 January 1931 until his retirement on 23 January 1936, Isaacs had been a Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (Indi), and Attorney-General (5 July 1905 – 12 October 1906) in the second Deakin government. He was a judge of the High Court for 25 years, serving as Chief Justice 1930–31. Isaacs had also been a Victorian parliamentarian from 1892 to 1901 and a delegate to the 1897–98 federation convention.
Liberal member of Britain’s House of Commons 1890–1945 and Prime Minister 1916–22, when William Hughes was Prime Minister of Australia, and during the terms of George Reid and Andrew Fisher as High Commissioner in London.
Lyne, (Sir) William John
Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–10 and Independent member 1910–13 (Hume). First Minister for Home Affairs in the Barton government (1901–03), Deakin’s Minister for Trade and Customs (24 September 1903 – 27 April 1904 and 5–30 July 1905) and Treasurer (30 July 1907 – 13 November 1908) in Deakin’s second government. Lyne had been Premier of New South Wales 1899–1901.
McCay, (Sir) James Whiteside
Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (Corinella) and Minister for Defence in the government of GH Reid (18 August 1904 – 5 July 1905). McCay triggered the fall of Chris Watson’s government on 12 August 1904, when his successful amendment to the Conciliation and Arbitration Bill demonstrated that Watson had lost majority support in the House of Representatives. He served on 2 select committees – on the Bonus for Manufactures Bill, and on Electoral Act Administration in 1904. McCay had been a Victorian parliamentarian 1895–1900. After losing his federal seat in the 1906 election McCay resumed a military career and was director of Intelligence 1909–13 and a major-general in the 1914–18 war. McCay was also a business adviser to the Bruce–Page government in the 1920s.
Labor Senator for South Australia 1901–1914, Vice-President of the Executive Council in the Watson government (27 April – 17 August 1904), and during the first 2 terms of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909 and 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913). McGregor had been a South Australian Labor parliamentarian 1894–1901.
Protectionist member of House of Representatives 1901–06 (Gippsland) and Minister for Trade and Customs in the government of George Reid (18 August 1904 – 5 July 1905) which depended on his support. McLean chaired the 1902 Royal Commission on the SS Drayton Grange and was a member of the 1904 select committee on Electoral Act Administration. He had been a Victorian parliamentarian 1880–1901 and Premier of Victoria 1899–1900.
McMillan, (Sir) William
Free Trade member of House of Representatives 1901–03 (Wentworth). As deputy leader of the Free Trade Party, McMillan frequently acted as Leader of the Opposition in George Reid’s absences from Melbourne during parliamentary sittings. McMillan had been a New South Wales parliamentarian 1887–1894 and as a strong federationist, was a delegate to both the 1891 and the 1897–98 federation conventions. He had long been a friend and colleague of Reid’s; together they had set up the Free Trade Association of NSW in the 1880s.
Millen, Edward Davis
Senator for New South Wales 1901–23, Millen was a member of the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–13, the Deakin Liberal Party 1913–17, and the Nationalist Party 1917–23. He was Vice-President of the Executive Council in the third Deakin government (2 June 1909 – 29 April 1910), Minister for Defence in the Cook government (24 June 1913 – 17 September 1914), Vice-President of the Executive Council (17 February – 16 November 1917), and Minister for Repatriation (28 September 1917 – 9 February 1923) in the Hughes government.
Moran, (Cardinal) Patrick Francis
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Sydney (1884) and Cardinal (1885–1911), Irish-born Moran was a strong supporter of Federation – he stood (unsuccessfully) as a candidate for election to the Australasian Federal Convention (1897–98), and of labour, taking the trades unions side in the maritime strike. In 1905 Moran challenged George Reid’s campaign which identified the Labor Party as socialist and therefore anti-Catholic, arguing that ‘the great enemy in Australia’ was not socialism but ‘imperial jingoism’.
Northcote (Lord), Henry Stafford
Governor-General of Australia 21 January 1904 – 9 September 1908 during the Deakin, Watson and Reid governments.
O’Connor, Richard Edward
Protectionist Senator for New South Wales 1901–03 and first Vice-President of the Executive Council (1 January 1901 – 24 September 1903), O’Connor was on the bench of the first High Court from 1903 until his death in 1912. A federalist and lifelong friend of Edmund Barton, O’Connor had been one of the 3 lawyers comprising the committee drafting the Constitution Bill at the 1897–98 Federation Convention.
Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Tasmania) and 1903–17 (Darwin), Minister for Home Affairs in the second Fisher government (29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913), and from 27 October 1915 – 14 November 1916 in the Hughes Labor government. Born in North America, O’Malley had settled in Tasmania, and was active as a federalist and parliamentarian there.
Prominent New South Wales public servant, lawyer and president of the State Land Appeal Court 1892–1904, Oliver was closely involved with the three premiers – George Dibbs, George Reid, and William Lyne – who argued for a national capital site close to Sydney. Oliver’s close friend Lyne appointed him head of the royal commission into the siting of the proposed capital in 1899. As first federal Minister for Home Affairs Lyne sought to implement Oliver’s recommendations. In 1902, 72-year-old Oliver secured the mountain possum skins for the special carriage rug presented by Jane Barton as a coronation gift for Queen Alexandra.
Page, Walter Hines
United States journalist and reformer, and a partner in the publishing firm of Doubleday, Page and Company, in 1900 Page founded the progressive journal The World’s Work and was editor until 1913. In that year, President Woodrow Wilson appointed him United States ambassador to the United Kingdom.
Parkes, (Sir) Henry
Perhaps the most prominent figure in New South Wales politics in the 50 years from the granting of responsible government until his death in 1896, Parkes was a leading federalist and delegate to the 1890 Conference and the 1891 Convention.
Reid, (Dame) Florence
Prime ministerial wife 1904–05.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 942.
Political reformer and founding member of the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales in 1891, the National Council of Women (NSW) in 1896, and the Women’s Political Educational League in 1902. Scott was a prominent anti-conscriptionist.
Shepherd, Malcolm Lindsay
First head of the Department of the Prime Minister 1911–21; official secretary to the High Commissioner in London 1921–27; and head of the Department of Defence 1927–37. Shepherd had been recruited to the new Commonwealth Postmaster-General’s Department in 1901 from the New South Wales department he had joined as a typist in 1890. In 1904, he became private secretary to Alfred Deakin, then to prime ministers Chris Watson, George Reid, and Andrew Fisher. He became a friend of William Hughes, and while at the High Commission, was Australian representative on the Pacific Cable Board and the Imperial War Graves Commission.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 25.
Free Trade Member of House of Representatives 1901–06 (Macquarie) and Postmaster-General in the Reid government (18 August 1904 – 5 July 1905). A loyal ally of Reid, it was Smith who negotiated with Alfred Deakin in May 1904 to set up the meeting with Reid that achieved the Free Trade–Protectionist alliance and made Reid Prime Minister when the Watson government fell, though Deakin declined to serve in Reid’s government. Smith was also a member of the Select Committee on Electoral Act Administration in 1904 and on two royal commissions, on old age pensions in 1904, and on ocean shipping in 1906. Smith was a member of the anti-socialist Australian Democratic Union formed by George Reid in 1906. Smith had been a New South Wales parliamentarian 1882–1900.
Solomon, Vaiben Louis
Free Trade Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (South Australia).
Newspaper proprietor and editor of the Melbourne Age newspaper 1860–1901, David Syme was a mentor and close friend of Alfred Deakin. His intervention was crucial in resolving the ‘Hopetoun blunder’ and ensuring Edmund Barton became first Prime Minister. His son Geoffrey Syme succeeded him as editor from 1908 to 1942.
Symon, (Sir) Josiah Henry
Free Trade/Anti-Socialist Party Senator for South Australia 1901–13, and Attorney-General in the Reid government (18 August 1904 – 5 July 1905). Symon had been a South Australian parliamentarian and federalist, and delegate to the 1897–98 federal convention. In 1930, as president of the Adelaide Branch of the Royal Empire Society, he was a leading opponent of JH Scullin’s appointment of Sir Isaac Isaacs as Governor-General.
Tennyson, (Lord) Hallam
Acting Governor-General of Australia 17 July 1902 – 9 January 1903 and Governor-General 9 January 1903 – 21 January 1904 during the Barton and first Deakin governments.
Free Trade/Anti-Socialist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–10 (North Sydney) and Minister for Home Affairs in the Reid government (18 August 1904 – 5 July 1905), Thomson was a friend of George Reid and joined the anti-socialist Australian Democratic Union Reid formed in 1906. Thomson was a member of a 1901 select committee on decimal coinage, and of 2 royal commissions, on the SS Drayton Grange in 1902, and on the Navigation Bill in 1906, and he represented Australia at the merchant shipping conference in London in 1907. As a New South Wales parliamentarian 1895–1901 he had been a strong supporter of Federation.
Turner, (Sir) George
Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (Balaclava), and the first Commonwealth Treasurer (1 January 1901 – 5 July 1905) in the Barton, Deakin, and Reid governments. As Premier of Victoria 1893–1900 Turner had been a key federalist.
Watson, John Christian (Chris)
Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (Bland) and 1906–10 (South Sydney), Watson was first Labor Prime Minister, and Treasurer, for four months in 1904.
Read more about Chris Watson.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 711.
Wise, Bernhard Ringrose
New South Wales parliamentarian, federationist and delegate to 1897–98 Convention, and political reformer.