First head of the Commonwealth Treasury 1901–16, Allen had been an accountant in the Victorian Treasury.
Anstey, Francis (Frank) George
Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1910–34 (Bourke), Minister for Health and for Repatriation (22 October 1929 – 3 March 1931) in the Scullin government, and assistant leader of the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party 1922–27. A friend and mentor of John Curtin, Anstey had been a Victorian parliamentarian 1902–10 and a foundation member of the Victorian Labor Federation and the Victorian Socialist Party.
Balfour, (Lord) Arthur James
Britain's Conservative Prime Minister 1902–05 during the Barton, Deakin, Watson and Reid governments, and Britain's Foreign Secretary 1916–19 during the Hughes government.
Barton, (Sir) Edmund
Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Hunter). Barton was Prime Minister and Minister for External Affairs 1901–03, and a judge of the High Court 1903–20.
Read more about Edmund Barton.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 710.
Batchelor, Egerton Lee
Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (South Australia) and 1903–11 (Boothby). Minister for Home Affairs in the government of Chris Watson (27 April 1904 – 18 August 1904), and Minister for External Affairs in Andrew Fisher's first government (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909) and from 29 April 1910 to 8 October 1911 during Andrew Fisher's second government. He attended the 1911 Imperial Conference with Andrew Fisher, where he was the principal Australian spokesman on trade and foreign policy. Batchelor had been a South Australian parliamentarian from 1893 to 1901 and was one of the founders of the Labor Party in South Australia.
Brennan, Francis (Frank)
Labor Party Member of House of Representatives 1911–31 and 1934–49 (Batman). Attorney General in the Scullin government (22 October 1929 – 6 January 1932), Brennan was a pacifist and anti-conscriptionist. He was a delegate to the League of Nations in 1930.
Melbourne Age newspaper journalist covering the Federation campaign 1898–1901, and federal parliament 1901–10. Cockerill became chief of staff on the Age and chief leader-writer 1914–26, from 1926 to 1928 was editor-in-chief of the Sydney Daily Telegraph newspaper and from 1929 to 1939 leader-writer for the Melbourne Herald newspaper. In 1928–29, Cockerill was employed by the Commonwealth Development and Migration Commission as chief of publicity.
Cook, (Sir) Joseph
Member of the House of Representatives (Parramatta) for the Free Trade Party 1901–06, the Anti-Socialist Party 1906–10, the Deakin Liberal Party 1910–17 and the Nationalist Party 1917–21. Cook was Prime Minister and Minister for Home Affairs (1913–14), Minister for Defence in the Deakin government (1909–10), Minister for the Navy (1917–20) and Treasurer (1920–21) in the Hughes government, and High Commissioner in London 1921–27.
Read more about Joseph Cook.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 611.
Dawson, Andrew (Anderson)
Labor Party Senator for Queensland 1901–06 and Minister for Defence in the government of Chris Watson (27 April – 18 August 1904), Dawson had been a Queensland parliamentarian (1893–1901) and in 1899–1900 was Premier of the first Labor government in Australia.
Member of the House of Representatives (Ballarat) for the Protectionist Party 1901–10 and the Liberal Party 1910–13. Deakin was the first Attorney-General, in the Barton government (1901–03), Prime Minister 3 times (1903–04, 1905–08, 1909–10), and Minister for External Affairs in his own governments in 1903–04 and 1905–08. As a Victorian parliamentarian and leading federationist, Deakin had been a delegate to the 1890 Federation Conference and to both federation Conventions (1891 and 1897–98) and a member of the Constitution Bill deputation in London in 1900.
Read more about Alfred Deakin.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 9.
Dwyer, Catherine (Kate) Winifred
A leading Labor activist, Dwyer was founding president of the women's organising committee of the Political Labor League in 1904 and a member of the New South Wales Labor Party executive. As a delegate at federal Labor Party conferences during 3 decades, Dwyer condemned the principle of compulsory military training, was a strong opponent of William Hughes in the 1916–17 conscription referendum campaigns, and advocated child endowment, widow's pensions and educational reform. At the 1921 Labor Party Conference, she voted against adoption of the 'socialist objective'. Dwyer formed the Women Workers'- Union and was a member of the Senate of the University of Sydney 1916–24. She was the sister of Labor activist Annie Golding.
Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–15 (Wide Bay), Andrew Fisher was Minister for Trade and Customs in the Watson government in 1904, Prime Minister 3 times (1908–09, 1910–13, 1914–15), and Treasurer in each of his own 3 governments. Fisher was High Commissioner in London 1916–21.
Read more about Andrew Fisher.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 713.
Garran, (Sir) Robert Randolph
Appointed first head of the Attorney-General’s department and parliamentary draftsman on 1 January 1901, Garran remained in this post until 5 February 1932. He served the governments of 10 prime ministers, Barton, Deakin, Watson, Reid, Fisher, Cook, Hughes, Bruce, Scullin and Lyons. As a young Sydney federationist in Barton’s circle, Garran had been secretary to the 1897–98 Constitutional drafting committee.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 396.
Golding, Annie Mackenzie
Member of the Womanhood Suffrage League of New South Wales and the Women’s Progressive Association in New South Wales. Like her sister Kate Dwyer, she was a Labor Party activist in the first decades of the Commonwealth.
Victorian suffragist, political reformer, and pacifist, Goldstein was among the few women to contest federal elections before 1920. She stood unsuccessfully for a Senate seat in 1903 and in the 4 elections 1910-17. Goldstein also worked for the British and United States suffrage organisations. She marched with Margaret Fisher in the major suffrage demonstration in London in 1911. The Hughes government ordered surveillance of her activities against conscription in 1915-17. In 1919, with Cecilia John, she was Australian delegate to the women’s peace conference held in Zurich simultaneously with the Versailles Conference.
Higgins, Henry Bournes
Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (North Melbourne), and Attorney-General in the Watson Labor government (1904). In 1906, Higgins was appointed a judge of the High Court, with the special duty of presiding over the Conciliation and Arbitration Court. As a federationist and member of the Victorian parliament, Higgins had been a delegate to the 1897–98 federation convention.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 180.
Holman, William Arthur
United Australia Party member of House of Representatives 1931–34 (Martin). A backbencher in the Lyons government, Holman was a former Premier of New South Wales (1913–20) and state parliamentarian 1898–1917 (Labor) and 1917–1920 (Nationalist). In 1911, Holman had been a powerful opponent of the Fisher government’s referendum seeking greater Commonwealth powers over industry, trade and commerce. With Chris Watson, Joseph Cook and William Hughes, he had been a founding member of the New South Wales Labor Electoral League in 1891.
Hughes, William Morris
Member of the House of Representatives 1901–17 (West Sydney), 1917–22 (Bendigo), 1922–49 (North Sydney) and 1949–52 (Bradfield). Hughes was a member of the Labor Party 1901–17, the Nationalist Party 1917–29, an ‘Independent Nationalist’ 1929–31, United Australia Party 1931–44, Liberal Party 1944–52. Prime Minister (1915–23), Hughes still holds the record as Australia’s longest serving parliamentarian. He was a Minister in the governments of Watson (1904), Fisher (1908–09, 1910–13 and 1914–15), Lyons (1932–39), Page (Attorney-General, Minister for Industry and Minister for External Affairs (7 April 1939 – 26 April 1939), Menzies (Attorney-General 26 April 1939 – 29 August 1941, Minister for Industry 26 April 1939 – 28 October 1940, Minister for the Navy 28 October 1940 – 29 August 1941), and Fadden (continuing as Attorney-General and Minister for the Navy 29 August 1941 – 7 October 1941). During the term of his own government, he also served as Attorney-General (27 October 1915 – 21 December 1921), Minister for Trade and Customs (29 September 1916 – 14 November 1916), Minister for External Affairs (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). As a New South Wales parliamentarian 1894–1901, Hughes was a founding member of the Labor Party in New South Wales. He became a founding member of the Nationalist Party in 1917, the United Australia Party in 1931, and the Liberal Party in 1945.
Read more about William Hughes.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 290.
Isaacs, (Sir) Isaac Alfred
The first Australian-born Governor-General, serving from 22 January 1931 until his retirement on 23 January 1936, Isaacs had been a Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–06 (Indi), and Attorney-General (5 July 1905 – 12 October 1906) in the second Deakin government. He was a judge of the High Court for 25 years, serving as Chief Justice 1930–31. Isaacs had also been a Victorian parliamentarian from 1892 to 1901 and a delegate to the 1897–98 federation convention.
John, Cecelia Annie
Anti-conscriptionist and pacifist, with Vida Goldstein formed the Women’s Peace Army in 1915 calling for the abolition of conscription and militarism. In 1919, an Australian delegate at the Women’s International Peace Conference in Zurich. John worked for the International Red Cross, and formed the Australian Save the Children Fund. She had been a Victorian suffragist and a member of the Women’s Political Association.
Kingston, Charles Cameron
Protectionist Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (South Australia) and 1903–08 (Adelaide). Kingston was the first Minister for Trade and Customs in the Barton government from 1 January 1901, resigning in July 1903 after a Cabinet disagreement over his pioneering Conciliation and Arbitration Bill. Kingston had been Premier of South Australia 1893–99, a delegate to both federation Conventions (1891 and 1897–98), and a member of the Constitution Bill deputation in London in 1900.
Locke, Lillian Sophia
Tasmanian delegate at 1905 federal Labor Party conference, a suffragist and organising secretary of the Political Labor Council of Victoria, worked with her husband, George Burns, as an industrial organiser in Queensland.
Labour member of the House of Commons from 1906, and Prime Minister of Britain’s first Labour government in 1924. Macdonald was also Prime Minister in 1929–35, during the Bruce, Scullin, and Lyons governments. He had visited Australia in 1906, and met both James Scullin and John Curtin at Labor gatherings in Victoria.
Labor Member of the House Representatives 1901–13 (Coolgardie), and 1913–17 and 1919–20 (Kalgoorlie). Mahon was Postmaster-General in the government of Chris Watson (27 April – 18 August 1904), and Minister for Home Affairs in Andrew Fisher’s first government (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909). He was Fisher’s Minister for External Affairs in his third term (17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) and in William Hughes Labor government (27 October 1915 – 14 November 1916). In 1920 Hugh Mahon became the only member ever expelled from the federal parliament, after he had attacked British policy in Ireland at a public meeting.
British trade unionist and socialist who worked in Australia 1902–10, Mann was an organiser for the Victorian Political Labor Council in 1903–04. Founder and Secretary of the Victorian Socialist Party in 1908, Mann worked with Frank Anstey and John Curtin. In 1920, Mann became a foundation member of the Communist Party of Great Britain.
Labor Senator for South Australia 1901–1914, Vice-President of the Executive Council in the Watson government (27 April – 17 August 1904), and during the first two terms of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909 and 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913). McGregor had been a South Australian Labor parliamentarian 1894–1901.
An organiser for the Australian Workers Union in western Queensland in the 1890s and the first woman member of the Brisbane Workers Political Organisation, Miller championed equal pay and equal opportunity for women and was foundation president of the Women’s Equal Franchise Association (1894–1905). In 1908 she was a delegate to the federal Labor Party conference, and in 1916 a delegate to the Australian Peace Alliance conference. In her late 70s, Miller campaigned against the conscription referendums in 1916–17.
Northcote (Lord), Henry Stafford
Governor-General of Australia 21 January 1904 – 9 September 1908 during the Deakin, Watson and Reid governments.
Labor Member of the House of Representatives 1901–03 (Tasmania) and 1903–17 (Darwin), Minister for Home Affairs in the second Fisher government (29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913), and from 27 October 1915 – 14 November 1916 in the Hughes Labor government. Born in North America, O’Malley had settled in Tasmania, and was active as a federalist and parliamentarian there.
Pearce, (Sir) George Foster
Senator for Western Australia 1901–38, Pearce was a member of the Labor Party 1901–17, the Nationalist Party 1917–31, and the United Australia Party 1931– 38. He was Minister of Defence in the three governments of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909; 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913 and 17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915). In the Hughes government, he was Minister for Defence (27 October 1915 – 21 December 1921) and Minister for Home and Territories (21 December 1921 – 9 February 1923). With Hughes, Pearce left the Labor Party over the conscription issue in 1917 and formed the Nationalist Party. In the Bruce–Page government, Pearce was Minister for Home and Territories (9 February 1923 – 18 June 1926) and Vice-President of the Executive Council (18 June 1926 – 22 October 1929). From 1929 to 1931, Pearce led Opposition members in the Senate, he was then Minister for Defence (6 January 1932 – 12 October 1934), Minister for External Affairs and Minister for Territories (12 October 1934 – 29 November 1937), in the Lyons government. In 1939, Pearce was a member of the Commonwealth Grants Commission.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 151.
Reid, Sir George Houstoun
Free Trade/Anti-Socialist Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–10 (East Sydney) and Prime Minister and Minister for External Affairs 1904–05, Reid was also Leader of the Opposition 1901–04 and 1905–08. From 1910 to 1916, he was Australian High Commissioner in London, and from 1916 until his death in 1918, a member of the British House of Commons. Reid had also served in the New South Wales parliament 1880–84 and 1885–1901, and was Premier in 1894–99.
Read more about George Reid.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 712.
Shepherd, Malcolm Lindsay
First head of the Department of the Prime Minister 1911–21; official secretary to the High Commissioner in London 1921–27; and head of the Department of Defence 1927–37. Shepherd had been recruited to the new Commonwealth Postmaster-General’s Department in 1901 from the New South Wales department he had joined as a typist in 1890. In 1904, he became private secretary to Alfred Deakin, then to prime ministers Chris Watson, George Reid, and Andrew Fisher. He became a friend of William Hughes, and while at the High Commission was Australian representative on the Pacific Cable Board and the Imperial War Graves Commission.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 25.
Tudor, Francis (Frank) Gwynne
Labor Party Member of the House of Representatives 1901–22 (Yarra), and Minister for Trade and Customs in the three governments of Andrew Fisher (13 November 1908 – 2 June 1909, 29 April 1910 – 24 June 1913, and 17 September 1914 – 27 October 1915) and from 27 October 1915 to 14 September 1916 in the Labor government of William Hughes. Tudor resigned from Hughes’ Cabinet over the conscription issue and replaced Hughes as leader of the federal parliamentary Labor Party after Hughes’ expulsion from the Labor Party in November 1916. He was leader until his death on 10 January 1922.
Prime ministerial wife April to August 1904.
National Archives of Australia Commonwealth Person CP 933.