Italians are among the earliest European immigrants to Australia.
A wave of Italian migration occurred during the gold rush in the 1850s. Migration from Italy continued throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, often as Italians sought better economic opportunities in Australia.
During the Second World War, people of Italian origin were interned in Australia as 'enemy aliens'. National Archives holds alien registration and internment records from this time period.
After the war, there was a notable increase in Italian immigration. This was spurred by Australian government initiatives such as the 'Populate or Perish' Program and the Displaced Persons Scheme.
In the 2021 Census, 1,108,364 Australians self-identified as having Italian ancestry.