Czechoslovakia was a European sovereign state from 1918 to 1993. In 1993, the country split into 2 two separate countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Two major waves of Czech migration to Australia have occurred. The first was a wave of refugees fleeing Communist Czechoslovakia in the years following the Second World War. 

The Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968 ended a period of democratic reform and led to another wave of migrants arriving in Australia. About 6,000 Czechoslovakian refugees arrived in Australia after August 1968. The 1968 arrival of refugees brought the total in Australia to more than 16,000. 

Several chartered flights arrived in Australia carrying political refugees from Czechoslovakia.

In the 2021 Census, 27,862 Australians self-identified as having Czech ancestry.