The bombing of Darwin – Fact sheet 195

A bomb disposal squad preparing to remove a live bomb after an air raid on Darwin, 1942

Japanese air raids on Darwin and northern Australia, 1942–43

On 19 February 1942 mainland Australia came under attack for the first time when Japanese forces mounted two air raids on Darwin. The two attacks, which were planned and led by the commander responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbour ten weeks earlier, involved 54 land-based bombers and approximately 188 attack aircraft which were launched from four Japanese aircraft-carriers in the Timor Sea. In the first attack, which began just before 10.00 am, heavy bombers pattern-bombed the harbour and town; dive bombers escorted by Zero fighters then attacked shipping in the harbour, the military and civil aerodromes, and the hospital at Berrimah. The attack ceased after about 40 minutes. The second attack, which began an hour later, involved high altitude bombing of the Royal Australian Air Force base at Parap which lasted for 20–25 minutes. The two raids killed at least 243 people and between 300 and 400 were wounded. Twenty military aircraft were destroyed, eight ships at anchor in the harbour were sunk, and most civil and military facilities in Darwin were destroyed.

Contrary to widespread belief at the time, the attacks were not a precursor to an invasion. The Japanese were preparing to invade Timor, and anticipated that a disruptive air attack would hinder Darwin's potential as a base from which the Allies could launch a counter-offensive, and at the same time would damage Australian morale. With Singapore having fallen to the Japanese only days earlier, and concerned at the effect of the bombing on national morale, the government announced that only 17 people had been killed.

The air attacks on Darwin continued until November 1943, by which time the Japanese had bombed Darwin 64 times. During the war other towns in northern Australia were also the target of Japanese air attack, with bombs being dropped on Townsville, Katherine, Wyndham, Derby, Broome and Port Hedland.

The response

In the hours following the air raids on 19 February, believing that an invasion was imminent, Darwin's population began to stream southwards, heading for Adelaide River and the train south. Approximately half Darwin's civilian population ultimately fled. The panic in the town was repeated at the RAAF base, where servicemen deserted their stations in great numbers. Three days after the attack 278 servicemen were still missing. The exodus south (which later became known as 'The Adelaide River stakes'), and the looting and disorder which subsequently occurred, led the government to hurriedly appoint a Commission of Inquiry led by Mr Justice Lowe which issued two reports, one on 27 March and the other on 9 April 1942.

The records

The National Archives and the Australian War Memorial hold a wide range of records relating to the bombing of Darwin. A selection of these records is listed in the table below.

The first bombings – 19 February 1942

National Archives, Canberra

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
ItemJapanese air raid on Darwin – 19th February 19421942A2684, 872
ItemPress reports of the bombing of Darwin – Advisory War Council agendum 2/19421942A5954, 327/12

National Archives, Melbourne

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
ItemDarwin air raids – warning measures taken at sea1942B6121, 159G

Australian War Memorial

The aftermath

National Archives, Canberra

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
ItemList of Northern Territory evacuees1942A7029, 1
ItemHonours and awards – Darwin raid, February 19421942A2124, 1
ItemShipping wrecks, Darwin harbour1946A432, 1946/855

National Archives, Melbourne

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
ItemHome Security report (includes photographs of the effects of bombing in the Darwin area)1941–44MP535/14, NN
ItemRAN personnel killed and injured in raid on Darwin1942MP151/1, 429/201/399
ItemWrecks in Darwin harbour1942MP1049/5, 1893/2/101
ItemCompensation for departmental officers in Darwin air raid1942–44MP721/1, W530

National Archives, Darwin

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
ItemDarwin raids – casualty lists and enquiries1942–46F1, 1942/364

Later bombings

National Archives, Canberra

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
SeriesDarwin raid number 55 (includes plot of enemy aircraft)1943A9696, 207
ItemIntelligence – raid no 62 (night) Darwin, 15–16 September 19431943A11231, 5/81/INT

National Archives, Melbourne

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
ItemReport of air raid on Naval area Darwin, 19 March 19421942MP1049/5, 1806/2/23

Australian War Memorial

The Lowe Commission of Inquiry

National Archives, Canberra

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
ItemTranscript of evidence, Darwin air raid inquiry1942A816, 37/301/293
ItemAir raid on Darwin – final report of Commission of Inquiry1942A816, 37/301/310
ItemBombing of Darwin – report by Mr Justice Lowe1942–49A431, 1949/687

National Archives, Melbourne

 Title or description of recordDate rangeSeries number
ItemDarwin air raid inquiry before Lowe J as Commissioner1942MP401/1, CL14687/1
ItemDarwin air raid inquiry – exhibits (includes seven photographs)1942MP401/1, CL14687/2
ItemDarwin air raids – report by Mr Justice Lowe1942–45 MP1185/8, 1806/2/31
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